The world's finest Rubies come from Myanmar (Burma).  Today, most Rubies come from Africa. The gems are corundum, some of the toughest, scratch resistant gems used in jewelry. They register a whopping 9 on the Mohs hardness scale, the same as Sapphires.
Rubies are always red in color, though they may range from pink hues to deep blood red.  Rubies from Viet Nam tend to be on the pinker side.  Traditionally, Ruby has been considered a stone for protection.